Which tripod to buy?

In August I went on holiday to Sri Lanka. During this trip I wanted to do some landscape and long exposure photographing. A tripod is really necessary for the latter. Furthermore, it was also a good excuse to myself to justify the reason to buy a tripod. However, as with any product, there are various on the market and sometimes it is difficult to find the best buy. Each one of them have different features and specifications, such as, expensive versus cheap, light versus heavy, small versus big, et cetera. As with most of the products which I buy I tried to minimize the price but maximize the features. The two most important requirements which I wanted to optimize, besides the cost, were

  1. Minimize the weight of the tripod but ensuring the stability and endurance of the tripod
  2. Maximize the unfolded height of the tripod but minimize the folded height

Based on those criteria you are quickly directed to the tripods which are branded in the market as travel tripods. Below a table with the tripods which I took into consideration.

MeFoto Roadtrip
Minimal height [cm] 34 0 10.5 21.8
Maximal height [cm] 144 162.5 147.5 131
Folded height [cm] 40 39 31 30.5
Weight [kg] 1.4 1.6 0.9 1.1
Maximum load [kg] 4 8 6 4
Material Aluminium Aluminium Carbon Carbon
Head mount? Y Y Y Y
Quick release? Y Y Y Y
Monopod? N Y N N

After balancing the advantages and disadvantages I decided to go for the MeFoto Roadtrip. For several reasons:

  1. For one it had good reviews on the internet, one particular which I liked was the review by Jason in the YouTube video below, which I also recommend too you to watch.
  2. The tripod was not too expensive compared to other tripods.
  3. It had the highest unfolded height
  4. Of all the tripods in the table above it is the heaviest, however, I considered 1.6 [kg] still as lightweight.
  5. Because I wasn’t planning to use the tripod on a daily bases I decided that an tripod of aluminium, instead of a carbon fiber one, would be durable enough
  6. The bar to which the camera is attached has a hook on the bottom to which extra weight can be added to increase the stability of the tripod. Along with the feature that the bar could be mounted upside down, which added to possibility to take photo’s directly at ground level. Were two features which I particularly liked.

Apart from the reasons above the MeFoto Roadtrip had also most of the features which other tripods featured, therefor the decision was made.

If you are ever looking for a reason to buy a tripod consider the following reasons:

  1. a tripod helps when using long exposures, for instance, you will need this when doing astrophotography.
  2. taking time lapses, panoramas, panning and videos become a lot easier since you have great support for your camera.
  3. when using a tripod you actually think a lot more about the framing of your shot, this is because everything takes a bit longer, setting up the tripod, adjusting, et cetera.
  4. self portraits are of a higher quality then when using a selfie stick.

Digital Control Systems 1.02

In the previous blog we introduced the various types of signals present in a digital control system and highlighted the pros and cons. In this blog we take a a closer look at the digital control system.

A digital control system, can only cope with digital signals. That is because it is inherently discrete in time and space. This is caused by the processors clock rate and due to the finite word length of a digital system. For instance, a 32 [bit] computer which runs at 4 [GHz] has a time resolution of 0.25 [ns] and the value of an unsigned integer can only range from 0 to 232 − 1.

Figure 1. Digital control system in its most elementary form. Continuous-time signals are in solid and discrete-time signals are dashed.

Figure 1 shows the digital control system in its most elementary form. Herein \mathcal{S} is the sampler. The sampler converts the analog output signal of the plant y(t) at time t \in \mathbb{R} to a digital measurement signal y[k] at discrete-time k \in \mathbb{N}. As mentioned in the previous blog, the digital signal is obtained by sampling and quantization of the analog signal. In final, \mathcal{H} denotes the recronstructor, also known as a digital-analog convertor (DAC), it converts the digital control signal u[k] provided by the controller to an analog control signal u(t).


Figure 2 shows that the sampler exists out of two devices namely; i) a sample and hold (SH) device and ii) a analog-digtal convertor (ADC).

Figure 2. The sampler and its sub systems.

The SH device knows two different states. The first state is called the track state at which the analog input signal is tracked by the SH device. The track state is also refereed to as sample state. However because of the ambiguous meaning of the word sample we will use the track, which is also commonly used in literature. The second state is called the hold state at which the analog input signal is being kept constant for a short period of time. The hold state is activated when the hold command is given. During the hold state the ADC is able to process and digitize the signal. The hold command can be triggered by any logic device. While there are many more aspects and subtleties to be considered with a SH device this gives a summarized overview of its functionality.

Figure 3. The track and hold of a SH. Dashed red shows the original signal, solid blue shows the SH signal.

Various different strategies exists at what time instance t_k the hold command is triggered. These are called sampling strategies.

  1. Periodic sampling; the sampling instances t_k are equally spaced, that is to say t_k = kh with k \in \mathbb{N} and h, given in [s], being the sampling period. See also Figure 2(a). The sampling period h is often also denoted as the sampling rate or sampling frequency f_s, given in [Hz]. It is related to the sampling period by h = \frac{1}{f_s}.
  2. Multi-order sampling; a pattern of sampling instances \{t_k\} are repeated periodically, as a result t_{k+r} = t_k. See Figure 2(b).
  3. Event-based sampling; the sampling instances t_k are generated based on a event in the system. For instance, when a certain measurement threshold has been crossed. See Figure 2(c) in which the signal is sampled at every \pm0.4x \pm 0.2 value.
  4. Random sampling; the sampling time instances t_k are chosen at random, see Figure 2(d).
Figure 2. Visualization of different sampling techniques. Red line resembles the original analog signal, blue the sampled signal. Matlab code.

Periodic sampling is the most common in industry. That is because of several reason; i) most deterministic behavior, ii) extensively been researched, iii) easiest to model and iv) easiest to obtain key performance indicators, for instance, in time- and frequency domain. Finally, proofing stability for the other sampling strategies is much harder then for periodic sampling.

All State of Trance episodes on Spotify

I am a staunch fan of A State of Trance of Armin van Buuren. Therefor, I made a list of all the State of Trance episodes available on spotify.

  1. https://open.spotify.com/album/65rxkH0MLVAUfvGJU2HPk4
  2. https://open.spotify.com/album/5jtGUCgpoqvSNZH8WcQf8F
  3. https://open.spotify.com/album/2RLKYKweji0JBAi2OtxOCt
  4. https://open.spotify.com/album/51MG0dQ7aAON9YSeVQuESN
  5. https://open.spotify.com/album/3VlEbY9dHahYMVDur5W5JP
  6. https://open.spotify.com/album/2jh0ZxkDItwwlXlR28IymD
  7. https://open.spotify.com/album/46QhHtpLmgtlu9OiloGtac
  8. https://open.spotify.com/album/4WEIgZligoc0lqNQZH1BHU
  9. https://open.spotify.com/album/6KEof7LPZLLHVzkrqLdMAT
  10. https://open.spotify.com/album/2tMcgPF3PAliylcaKdmchi
  11. https://open.spotify.com/album/6QRawIT0hMoRIbBoVTE7aF
  12. https://open.spotify.com/album/7fG3Ojc9gcaWlDiEK0Khn3
  13. https://open.spotify.com/album/0rlYWWv1cqZ0dVTrIMwsdl
  14. https://open.spotify.com/album/78Jg3VsL3s6MQbvKCJO4Kk
  15. https://open.spotify.com/album/3LHyRc4hqhN1Ux6Ank35oH
  16. https://open.spotify.com/album/2B4fA79h4wcqhOfr9FHLa0
  17. https://open.spotify.com/album/4LdnyKph8K1Tfndu2gm4Ww
  18. https://open.spotify.com/album/0v7140z14LzlPUkBkZajsO
  19. https://open.spotify.com/album/2hjnBKdWMaxqzcNZsjvLo2
  20. https://open.spotify.com/album/0lLQFUfcGewYHzb7eNk2sU
  21. https://open.spotify.com/album/4DVm0heIq4WhnZCrvRgUcQ
  22. https://open.spotify.com/album/2aZSfgIuepJlGYDkExl3pk
  23. https://open.spotify.com/album/4ErwCMdhHH8Is6XcUnrgGZ
  24. https://open.spotify.com/album/55IIabrevVvjs1eMhYd48G
  25. https://open.spotify.com/album/5Ro8x51oqQ68yIj4Bk3MGC
  26. https://open.spotify.com/album/0vef8t0hukoNUgLB7hfbCh
  27. https://open.spotify.com/album/3Q0L1bOSN4l62aZb7jEb1q
  28. https://open.spotify.com/album/6IgdDmdw6gzLgI29zkFV5B
  29. https://open.spotify.com/album/68t45JtpzzFCF4a20fMr2e
  30. https://open.spotify.com/album/7drFmJQdsZJMlljBTYuB3J
  31. https://open.spotify.com/album/403W3zS9MhVD4hs3kg9Ylu
  32. https://open.spotify.com/album/4kMis3hXbMYU36seBGd8ds
  33. https://open.spotify.com/album/3u81K6jJ2BfgfJzu24RLWd
  34. https://open.spotify.com/album/2wtvQZtq6NBrOUoteDRbCH
  35. https://open.spotify.com/album/5o2pRlTv4dN7lLaBbGfikP
  36. https://open.spotify.com/album/4CeGI6njkAhaNf1NJO4Wbv
  37. https://open.spotify.com/album/5Up7R0jZYZUPUebZiQPzNt
  38. https://open.spotify.com/album/2lAD34Mk4U6NTbQaKk1uJi
  39. https://open.spotify.com/album/1fPPuhpzMEESzVXd40g7iJ
  40. https://open.spotify.com/album/3xIPtxGDbKlkHRjV6UgJVA
  41. https://open.spotify.com/album/3FxDAo5EDK125dNr8x6pah
  42. https://open.spotify.com/album/2fpveoRx9KpQ7FY1AzQkS8
  43. https://open.spotify.com/album/5eRQRAh2yCc8b8g7DbcSqf
  44. https://open.spotify.com/album/0I6fTQtxHssnaHhqyS1Z4n
  45. https://open.spotify.com/album/1EbNowqGV0ipSyIaHVpMqi
  46. https://open.spotify.com/album/6J36U4sw4wvM9PFld9wzQd
  47. https://open.spotify.com/album/3mzzoSUGh1XNdYdILlwTRi
  48. https://open.spotify.com/album/515DdJsne3J4PsGzErOEVK
  49. https://open.spotify.com/album/0c1mtJ3Oxt8K5eakvEUJWk
  50. https://open.spotify.com/album/0pG5saa87HINV2s8AUYgK9
  51. https://open.spotify.com/album/0YnmoFlO88JfnfxyKKxzhn
  52. https://open.spotify.com/album/4nksoSyt6ExdV1IFdxfX7K
  53. https://open.spotify.com/album/2KH2xVEbQlqCqNkme5c13W
  54. https://open.spotify.com/album/6rkZGXPlsm8O8H3AqLug4T
  55. https://open.spotify.com/album/3PAzlLPZ5yTCdhsMMqH0Kn
  56. https://open.spotify.com/album/4TsmmpCSwWpOwI6y8pK07E
  57. https://open.spotify.com/album/56qM5Y21wbvCW9l5GiAiaV
  58. https://open.spotify.com/album/2uiOpUMUYXU5n2BVgZ9Szf
  59. https://open.spotify.com/album/24GG2tFabhxy4r14tTTpbI
  60. https://open.spotify.com/album/4dikoEqBQ1roY7A6GpRkRc
  61. https://open.spotify.com/album/3GJsL1YDH1Z6t2xGaqWeHj
  62. https://open.spotify.com/album/2bnH26lvzzSkn6woQoio1s
  63. https://open.spotify.com/album/03HQobgAcTq9CZYeBu4k3O
  64. https://open.spotify.com/album/5xIi1BprJZq2VT0I5DR0xp
  65. https://open.spotify.com/album/0YeK921tnqamtQBorA32fr
  66. https://open.spotify.com/album/782OEROtN3DNWU05XULa2U
  67. https://open.spotify.com/album/50djmhc833RhARJOElKkWl
  68. https://open.spotify.com/album/0UIDCagWalM6i8NUTmeS7M
  69. https://open.spotify.com/album/386FGiY8B3PHtxsMBxiaAl
  70. https://open.spotify.com/album/5wzN0F4fpK8VwrKI7LFH5q
  71. https://open.spotify.com/album/2FV0OJCXqNVnhhNRgmpuKl
  72. https://open.spotify.com/album/7KxAfazFtRoPCpjQ6MBvfw
  73. https://open.spotify.com/album/1Y2U6lrw97kVIxb0cxHmzK
  74. https://open.spotify.com/album/3KVnbsmcKNrLs6oxrkgtFp
  75. https://open.spotify.com/album/7HHXN0woRAC4ecryagbCdd
  76. https://open.spotify.com/album/2OWxE2dfCb2LuZo5D3Dr2H
  77. https://open.spotify.com/album/3C5cg0ccswwrh5uMt9eTXu
  78. https://open.spotify.com/album/2ALmfvR1xM6aXALVZ4oux1
  79. https://open.spotify.com/album/70BQoVEPDxGC3Gb4fv9MCm
  80. https://open.spotify.com/album/4wWL8huSLAkQKOFEgptbRi
  81. https://open.spotify.com/album/3w1H3OXlktGj16qwaX5Sil
  82. https://open.spotify.com/album/709gu1b01VLMAmlj5qQeGS
  83. https://open.spotify.com/album/1lt7MXbzekZZT6nb2Z4UD3
  84. https://open.spotify.com/album/14mVnyJ1VLyzwdMBd3FzL7
  85. https://open.spotify.com/album/1QvofnlBEHhXkb9FAETAdC
  86. https://open.spotify.com/album/1liA6hIa9WD1ReVpIbb4Gr
  87. https://open.spotify.com/album/5i9W2LSga5v0vrzpzu66Fd
  88. https://open.spotify.com/album/5g0MvYFCVXTyMmAeROVd4H
  89. https://open.spotify.com/album/2iY0l7UBxUZqvTZUr0dXX4
  90. https://open.spotify.com/album/4sowBJxlo7V9wYNi3hadNf
  91. https://open.spotify.com/album/40fwtgaDpx3sEr5acgS71C
  92. https://open.spotify.com/album/6omTsqV2Qb0zQKHrDDqjdf
  93. https://open.spotify.com/album/5ADITh6041I7ceGrCc8Sgd
  94. https://open.spotify.com/album/2bYMMPHgBNRjlPWYKRz57e
  95. https://open.spotify.com/album/5OdDH0zcJ7kSTVsF900GQo
  96. https://open.spotify.com/album/2890ZyCCyedTDIZV4OAEJF
  97. https://open.spotify.com/album/1bZUwZci1QYBTfngCUHDfD
  98. https://open.spotify.com/album/0aCSNwaVxBsnCykheOsrfE
  99. https://open.spotify.com/album/1hRDIYdEBWbDJK2xN611AP
  100. https://open.spotify.com/album/2I3lQt9veNSDw7LknRzaji
  101. https://open.spotify.com/album/6IRNXHsIctPaOmGaT3aIOQ
  102. https://open.spotify.com/album/4B9s5i4u1EQCBcHMF130ai
  103. https://open.spotify.com/album/5XP5qfGUaUuvFycBfjWTLC
  104. https://open.spotify.com/album/5KKKEwcBjOj1R2FFPhAAtS
  105. https://open.spotify.com/album/6fHuprfapu6W4C4wUCAaee
  106. https://open.spotify.com/album/2nsIFD2cXPkdXslOPZP61r
  107. https://open.spotify.com/album/1s5NL9yr8yT33oPcAoGiqu
  108. https://open.spotify.com/album/1jsImIi3MIBmMh36cguMoJ
  109. https://open.spotify.com/album/4VHpgpURE6DHhHEWz6mTDE
  110. https://open.spotify.com/album/5coGuXVsHbVjZ4yUG49rmk
  111. https://open.spotify.com/album/7zchhV4YivxoTTTWgz1PpV
  112. https://open.spotify.com/album/7EXl4dzp9cG7a9gYU3JXJJ
  113. https://open.spotify.com/album/7rzDHsRcoHWZejvhonZzfD
  114. https://open.spotify.com/album/6ZKDhLih8cO2fnYz3V1oRy
  115. https://open.spotify.com/album/0fGRm8c8p0ehFTxfY6fhjY
  116. https://open.spotify.com/album/6VKCEw0CBqmA8gbq6lPVbJ
  117. https://open.spotify.com/album/7uIIedI8pHtalzpj5TAKjH
  118. https://open.spotify.com/album/15kakQ3Psf5TjQAYRdkm08
  119. https://open.spotify.com/album/61iVMAFH25HzJ5CSKUcRGo
  120. https://open.spotify.com/album/6VEEBclHX7tfOgj6hZ4IZH
  121. https://open.spotify.com/album/5pt9XNu5xVeLdsIAoW4Tzh
  122. https://open.spotify.com/album/5kWc6YxKeRvjWfV2cfQ3AZ
  123. https://open.spotify.com/album/6nlwIC0KVQdD4MW6mhp0aw
  124. https://open.spotify.com/album/4dGibs037LXTFhGFsr80JL
  125. https://open.spotify.com/album/1ixayckKODoYT1r3Sdq0tp
  126. https://open.spotify.com/album/5iLFct6fhawyQEmIecEoDC
  127. https://open.spotify.com/album/0pLc2hbMrI9WHr9StUOBPl
  128. https://open.spotify.com/album/7s9TL1n2T0Q10xDpu5OsPr
  129. https://open.spotify.com/album/1ZedL2Ys7rN2thimKnish7
  130. https://open.spotify.com/album/6Fvyy7F0kQysVvrU08a9rp
  131. https://open.spotify.com/album/3BeGpIoZSZxLWUX0IkwUsq
  132. https://open.spotify.com/album/1Nb0Zldgl8OB7MGf5quH8g
  133. https://open.spotify.com/album/0jz55IRy9DHWPFmWLaOW3Z
  134. https://open.spotify.com/album/6f2sf3yf9pYO38aSSVVydN
  135. https://open.spotify.com/album/23JyGPDJboU4jIel8Csc49
  136. https://open.spotify.com/album/1vVXIEq3Sf87ikHAltFdtT
  137. https://open.spotify.com/album/3aEcTsCCg1F8htx2RbiEZM
  138. https://open.spotify.com/album/5tOqrxbxw32hm0F1xMEOFM
  139. https://open.spotify.com/album/5EyRJaQ6r1sVin3y5eK3GD
  140. https://open.spotify.com/album/1lGLuCjmixoDlqwjBbMmhL
  141. https://open.spotify.com/album/3Q6gt061MMIqbALlnfUe1k
  142. https://open.spotify.com/album/1EnOsqGnTEQJpe2Crh78xe
  143. https://open.spotify.com/album/3sUYh0Tn7LssTFVaILZ98B
  144. https://open.spotify.com/album/26vdO58iKWvXAYwFSQQyZt
  145. https://open.spotify.com/album/3b9erLWsy3XmmrXxGwNWFi
  146. https://open.spotify.com/album/1dtkhfJbPr3ED7JPi6g3QC
  147. https://open.spotify.com/album/21rdvfTywvXcFfi3Z8MkEQ
  148. https://open.spotify.com/album/5dQO7AXOdouHYvmKPUPG9f
  149. https://open.spotify.com/album/7yclNCY9yJefUJXYDF2h0b
  150. https://open.spotify.com/album/7HJVRdwWncm1RmyLfA8CLw
  151. https://open.spotify.com/album/2quUFEbFQ6USEvNO9UijIU
  152. https://open.spotify.com/album/0fZVtQN4sUiQnXB0sTaSjf
  153. https://open.spotify.com/album/1Fv8xFAq1tWeSzcIcWDB9O
  154. https://open.spotify.com/album/4T8R34v2dMzaXpxpHQrudF
  155. https://open.spotify.com/album/6TVyadS59SQoKHE0hslEmC
  156. https://open.spotify.com/album/7gP7DrXkQ4dZl4cmdHFQY2
  157. https://open.spotify.com/album/3D37Lt0FJNeO0aNFcR3ocS
  158. https://open.spotify.com/album/69wlmRuFx3oOmCnk6WEw2e
  159. https://open.spotify.com/album/06aFTP1QGxt1xRCUoszXOW
  160. https://open.spotify.com/album/6UyjZ6t9X68p61LGD3LlJN
  161. https://open.spotify.com/album/4rZKDFeqipHigXrvFoMEKH
  162. https://open.spotify.com/album/0QieI8V1y2TujVJj5e3vBL
  163. https://open.spotify.com/album/5jwunXSF3xwEPq3YNAHFb8
  164. https://open.spotify.com/album/4F4wCvKYEsNrjoD0RKSN6K
  165. https://open.spotify.com/album/0Z1LvHwQ8hRALGHTRmrGVi
  166. https://open.spotify.com/album/7C5iFTn1WB9Sk4YLb2rZpZ
  167. https://open.spotify.com/album/1sC5UGYucW46U4ldDg5gY0
  168. https://open.spotify.com/album/5mGitHy7rHaEx4jb0zyEEd
  169. https://open.spotify.com/album/3cgv3y8gvGo8NVOSECZEQk
  170. https://open.spotify.com/album/3koIzB19oierUgIoiAKXrk
  171. https://open.spotify.com/album/1IinfrUT9b7QyCdZJU1G31
  172. https://open.spotify.com/album/3SBTzOAB8yP8HxBZus9mlK
  173. https://open.spotify.com/album/0u1H56qt5mXJ6z2blasWo1
  174. https://open.spotify.com/album/1mBtULzvQfMczUdFPZGfEa
  175. https://open.spotify.com/album/0hC6KcOUA3Mow0rJfvYbxj
  176. https://open.spotify.com/album/7IQMEbCCUXjGR46bF7BpBa
  177. https://open.spotify.com/album/5CMRbv1bpGubJiCUGr3xiD
  178. https://open.spotify.com/album/3gb50BX7kL1vQU97sN4xVe
  179. https://open.spotify.com/album/3I9JzeeQv7mBceprbStev7
  180. https://open.spotify.com/album/5Fx9NnZmHtkCybsbrF8Qit
  181. https://open.spotify.com/album/3UBA9mZvudrTVlRGd45s6q
  182. https://open.spotify.com/album/2jy86suo9ipki4xgoIJjd2
  183. https://open.spotify.com/album/3peCqfZsEYeBJxRCsjONjm
  184. https://open.spotify.com/album/1MLsHqKIy44GYH03OT15OL
  185. https://open.spotify.com/album/5Xab4RSAwAry1UGQBVxS1K
  186. https://open.spotify.com/album/5HXSB31bBUrNFWJw8ZYxhi
  187. https://open.spotify.com/album/3b0ShTBpO3FT5xFmIRh3cg
  188. https://open.spotify.com/album/2QMfJGTZE1g3Hky54Qncck
  189. https://open.spotify.com/album/0mHcBQs9VWocj7W9I2GlWt
  190. https://open.spotify.com/album/6ZMNIBZcaI4ffI4MplUL36
  191. https://open.spotify.com/album/4HRQJeEdnx7v4lb2aZNtli
  192. https://open.spotify.com/album/2cKh9RwQG0sxHkjg62RnVz
  193. https://open.spotify.com/album/2fk7m4Up4z3Iw1czG2mpmo
  194. https://open.spotify.com/album/2MbiRpXVuQAuRAO1RODSkb
  195. https://open.spotify.com/album/28QijJiALYLtjlHbCGi9XD
  196. https://open.spotify.com/album/2kaBh3AhSfhrJ4QNrV7j9w
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  703. https://open.spotify.com/album/2GgnuYW944NusEHGvssULl
  704. https://open.spotify.com/album/2KJ4VKmcATRfjL0NhSzJ9P
  705. https://open.spotify.com/album/3NdFuALsQly0s2JX0dCBjN
  706. https://open.spotify.com/album/02o8YcpU4dsanr5MADOKyC
  707. https://open.spotify.com/album/4AywsW6L2xoFZrYQdWOBg2
  708. https://open.spotify.com/album/2U82T5ZIlksEa6Du2Df50C
  709. https://open.spotify.com/album/47RSWdpVucFJ3TRftdf3BF
  710. https://open.spotify.com/album/2rkfGVpNBPQAsWAP3L9x93
  711. https://open.spotify.com/album/6i8EmOarATYm8ySRzLyuK8
  712. https://open.spotify.com/album/5nsZ1F4WLA8zh0KkA8uVXd
  713. https://open.spotify.com/album/3YfePmVAThs3clMowMUXdh
  714. https://open.spotify.com/album/3g65MWBM8k7Rl5hqlEVRjM
  715. https://open.spotify.com/album/2GOCvOyopJbvmas6k3AD78
  716. https://open.spotify.com/album/0U0GS77qmbTTKTSkKmqvjo
  717. https://open.spotify.com/album/0zmHLQxgg1XRtSb21PKPV4
  718. https://open.spotify.com/album/6b0ipkFRwnrtJniaMRXGUV
  719. https://open.spotify.com/album/2b8Qzt6zZZWLajbFE6QlHX
  720. https://open.spotify.com/album/1ryZXi558HZWpmIIeg72r2
  721. https://open.spotify.com/album/6WL53nz0AsOpBG8vZKjBvW
  722. https://open.spotify.com/album/56hl3qKQIhnfnQdUomeuoB
  723. https://open.spotify.com/album/6izzXqa9WqOEAumgoBnl7q
  724. https://open.spotify.com/album/5V3VhcwL5wc1qHEFtu7BUs
  725. https://open.spotify.com/album/6IRv0cvWdu06CEfSYi27vL
  726. https://open.spotify.com/album/2v8SoYkc5wJSqFkE5Pbr8e
  727. https://open.spotify.com/album/6m9yMEqiE6uEhrRp68se0S
  728. https://open.spotify.com/album/5SD8Rdozct3RBCBmSPs89G
  729. https://open.spotify.com/album/1kWvX0tJWZQMV4ztvMmTO3
  730. https://open.spotify.com/album/7KjeWZkKmfPT0IbuGEAwHg
  731. https://open.spotify.com/album/5Mdgx8Sl0o1Z5S4yvxsk4s
  732. https://open.spotify.com/album/7z2wFRjEMx3e6TqNKa3MNd
  733. https://open.spotify.com/album/4fdm0qDYsL7ohg1KLrXqRM
  734. https://open.spotify.com/album/60N6qFFa42aKwD0AOkKgrl
  735. https://open.spotify.com/album/3ZHRUxp205uZ6h4Bxk8eRD
  736. https://open.spotify.com/album/72KQ0UvGyOg1drmEoETwsY
  737. https://open.spotify.com/album/6QzVbxXzPNEW1qQfR2y1nh
  738. https://open.spotify.com/album/1JsvK0bBbLQ3a3RUmqvhh5
  739. https://open.spotify.com/album/4YYekPlejBy5X5wotcDTLm
  740. https://open.spotify.com/album/67VfXNm7j2hVZAuNfzusND
  741. https://open.spotify.com/album/7gx0LHSSKb1zvhDsR1qlXj
  742. https://open.spotify.com/album/7wsjDzKqwlwxDJMNCr0GBc
  743. https://open.spotify.com/album/0Msj6QLuO1z7nEyzvN6Irb
  744. https://open.spotify.com/album/7JJm8HwliCfxne8IMG31l9
  745. https://open.spotify.com/album/1Z1GtIgbbzZdP8YRtBSMFQ
  746. Not available
  747. https://open.spotify.com/album/0HO5wjGn159W9tymooKuwS
  748. https://open.spotify.com/album/3vjKvq5sTB7M2o9t6lQWFW
  749. https://open.spotify.com/album/1Fe70vQ7EXYjynE7lGe5a8
  750. https://open.spotify.com/album/0mzW1Ok0eKZA1712LmEjwD
  751. https://open.spotify.com/album/2FOHuwfARdoSXytzbAuzky
  752. https://open.spotify.com/album/0O9bl7Kf2pnKZIE2UggXBU
  753. https://open.spotify.com/album/6fChr0wDnGVlbZo86pwBpL
  754. https://open.spotify.com/album/6rVtiDj4a6NTzA6cBhqzHr
  755. https://open.spotify.com/album/39e7F6yj5AkQBcMBgqx0xn
  756. https://open.spotify.com/album/4zPuW0rjBqWdW8WAOQea2C
  757. https://open.spotify.com/album/53LKezwD1gPUkbrjctewfn
  758. https://open.spotify.com/album/0jCSFZ33BJ4tIpZFSunGUS
  759. https://open.spotify.com/album/5WQawhjdyFldRPPfXzZlXB
  760. https://open.spotify.com/album/44FmS1arWXSF8msTTNLs1F
  761. https://open.spotify.com/album/6nbjor30rBuJkMDxVphr8t
  762. https://open.spotify.com/album/1j1cGp0SbDBXhDD4z9DNDE
  763. https://open.spotify.com/album/7nC8BaG7nZlVTA1oMD3d8i
  764. https://open.spotify.com/album/7It5yDcYuAwuharaGBulbp
  765. https://open.spotify.com/album/2Ab3m1wIJ7Og24AQcXqpDr
  766. https://open.spotify.com/album/1bx0cWK0nT7sszYa9y6o0X
  767. https://open.spotify.com/album/2G6fE5GqRvZAqKE7wJfuui
  768. https://open.spotify.com/album/1n8icO3BwuLa30R491S6PN
  769. https://open.spotify.com/album/3NMUXjLgqWGO6UP8L9GrbX
  770. https://open.spotify.com/album/1cSfHWplybRbrz3fQwJrlu
  771. https://open.spotify.com/album/2q478NAobUtiFplZk3irAf
  772. https://open.spotify.com/album/4GEZUQe63QHMUbVRm2qVIQ
  773. https://open.spotify.com/album/3BPKRLsFLCLsTsPNUc2HRV
  774. https://open.spotify.com/album/1s9YLn6PR4KuUOp8Vs4Xkf
  775. https://open.spotify.com/album/335jfcqrdWbZVwDfkqT0lU
  776. https://open.spotify.com/album/7ixugpsgmcFCjKfeUDL8ro
  777. https://open.spotify.com/album/1vWciNuhHcR1YuH4xXe4l4
  778. https://open.spotify.com/album/2D1GpZF8RqGlKSklBbgj6w
  779. https://open.spotify.com/album/483mk4BHBg2ma9iFzUz3M5
  780. https://open.spotify.com/album/4Th7mnq2a7uf5k2S9z7EQ1
  781. https://open.spotify.com/album/7lL2bQQPCDse2q8i3dMUjx
  782. https://open.spotify.com/album/7HhEcdNmiStc70DT0qzVxY
  783. https://open.spotify.com/album/4EjvvPim1wcnlNhNZjaP9k
  784. https://open.spotify.com/album/5aSra0kDmy7LlHe59nLcJh
  785. https://open.spotify.com/album/4vptJxkxzrfP1tXlc8m121
  786. https://open.spotify.com/album/61jYmljQv0lmucbuKEiHzC
  787. https://open.spotify.com/album/4RTghptkwIbIq160pe3jZM
  788. https://open.spotify.com/album/76TidMxZbTVogBOoM0ulA8
  789. https://open.spotify.com/album/2ac6XqWYgPrL0jYjtJHUb8
  790. https://open.spotify.com/album/4YA82is6EknJnoJSklUx4v
  791. https://open.spotify.com/album/2QweMWdHvDYUCozExzBHmM
  792. https://open.spotify.com/album/3OJP8vSzNpEw7HVzi2rTOi
  793. https://open.spotify.com/album/0aIAiBK8UkUpA6eYb1mUdW
  794. https://open.spotify.com/album/2WbGX8vWla3GiQ5PThmJZF
  795. https://open.spotify.com/album/3cw0ijH8cLdIKrCoAh1Lul
  796. Not available
  797. https://open.spotify.com/album/57bfCFzrv7MgiUhpe9oVo8
  798. https://open.spotify.com/album/1g2NpgmdW9ZJEtnYo4AAEa
  799. https://open.spotify.com/album/1WmnnvWIyZ1ESt5BQpGZ6T
  800. https://open.spotify.com/album/5bcr898rqwVdJTZta6SFo0
  801. https://open.spotify.com/album/2XsBduMp5RdZOTsWMqKJtv
  802. https://open.spotify.com/album/3ci4Yh7hNhAecGf4UqfEl8
  803. https://open.spotify.com/album/2QalqDoSKRt8Xo1RW8Xj3V
  804. https://open.spotify.com/album/1ZNocPzhsKlUjBwgWWZWuq
  805. https://open.spotify.com/album/4NR9t5I0TVUi1Yc3pLYHsx
  806. https://open.spotify.com/album/6oYSflckfXRUmL1MHnkOAQ
  807. https://open.spotify.com/album/655Ly71N60JXaE4A3bkXQt
  808. https://open.spotify.com/album/0FDRIgmEv6n2sERggnDQzy
  809. https://open.spotify.com/album/6179RIIF3vXkAaMqB1N3YV
  810. https://open.spotify.com/album/5PUYJ30eHIvzquoEaYhl8V
  811. https://open.spotify.com/album/4fOnrjQFQ2asr2asX2940u
  812. https://open.spotify.com/album/0qgsuBeCvrhEfJRboNRPxE
  813. https://open.spotify.com/album/4J0g0v4rAINnkvem7e5Fcu
  814. https://open.spotify.com/album/73rRnHjmwZbj9vFoD0tcGZ
  815. https://open.spotify.com/album/1fjWSIa9zzBMmO8OlPSW8m

Digital Control Systems 1.01

Digital control systems never did get enough attention during my Master System & Control in my opinion. In the various courses which I was taught, continuous-time control systems were always examined, but almost never digital control systems. For most courses this is also perfectly fine. However, you would expect that there would be also a more in-depth course about digital control systems into the curriculum. Especially, since almost all control systems are a digital control system.

I remember a course in which each group had to program a robot to convey pizza’s from one cabinet to another. A group mentioned, during their presentation, that they used a PID controller to control the various axis of the robot. I knew all the groups had designed their control algorithms in the continuous-time domain, therefore I asked; i) what discretization method(s) they had used, ii) if they had check the stability and iii) if they had checked the robustness (phase, gain and modulus margin) of their digital control system with respect to the continuous-time domain controller. Unfortunately none of my questions were answered. This disappointed me and was an acknowledgement of my opinion that not enough attention was given to digital control systems. Since this was one of the last courses given before one started their internship and graduation.

For the above reason, I will do a couple of blogs about digital control systems. I will try to focus on a single topic each blog and keep it clear and easy to understand; “If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough.”. In this first blog I will briefly go into the pros and cons of digital control systems and its analog counterpart. Followed by the introduction of the various type of signals that are present in a digital control system.

Pros and cons of digital control systems

Below is a list of pros and cons for both digital as well as analog control systems. Remark that there might be many more and that some pros or cons are subject to opinion, experience or interpretation.

Analog control Digital control
  • Robust; do not (often) break down
  • Continuous processing; no inherent bandwidth limits
  • Hard to modify; time-consuming, hardware needs to be rebuilt
  • Flexible; ability to create complicated controllers, easy to modify and fast to develop, less susceptible to aging and environmental variations
  • Robust; performance or safety can be monitored, errors can be dealt with appropriately
  • Diagnostics; on-the-fly testing, parameters can be adjusted, measurement signals can be stored
  • Low cost
  • Slow development; difficult to develop accurate designs due to tolerances in components
  • Complex: difficult to create complicated controllers, also hard to modify, testing alternatives is difficult, hard to build in intelligence, difficult to do multi-input-multi-output control
  • Disruptive noise
  • High cost
  • Discrete; signal might be inaccurate due to finite word length, time delays in control loop, discrete controller, stability might be an issue
  • Complex; complicated controllers, difficult to obtain a high bandwidth

While analog control systems have considerable disadvantages the flexibility of digital control systems stands-out. The latter made sure that companies adopted digital over their counterpart because it opened multiply doors. For instance, the rapid development of a complex controllers which incorporated optimization algorithms to maximize performance and profit. All created at the tenth of the costs for the same analog control system.

Types of signals in a digital control systems

The main disadvantage of digital control systems is found in the fact that one has to deal with discrete variables instead of continuous ones. Consequently, let us define the different types of signals. A Continuous-time signal is a signal for which every point in the time domain, this can be infinitely, an amplitude is defined. Similarly, a discrete-time signal is a signal for which only a sequence of points in time an amplitude is defined. Note that these points in time do necessarily have to be equidistant. In case it is, the signal has an associated periodic interval. Likewise to the domain, signals may also be continuous or discrete with respect to their range, i.e., amplitude.

Summarized; in general signals can either be continuous or discrete with respect to their domain or range. Herein, the domain is in general time, in case of control systems and the range can be anything; Voltage, Amperes, Newtons, meter per second, et cetera. Figure 1 shows the four possible combinations.

Figure 1. The four possible combinations of signal types.
Figure 1. The four possible combinations of signal types. Matlab code.

In Figure 1(a) an analog signal is displayed, which is both continuous in time and amplitude. Figure 1(b) shows a sampled signal; continuous in amplitude and discrete in time; Figure 1(c) the quantized signal, discrete in amplitude and continuous in time. Finally Figure 1(d), the digital signal. This signal is both discrete in time and amplitude. Remark: the exact definition of a quantized signal and sampled signal are often ambiguous. Often it is implicitly assumed that a quantized signal is also sampled, e.g., discrete in time. Likewise, the sampled signal is sometimes in explicitly assumed to be quantized as well. Lastly, the digital signal can be obtained by sampling and quantization of the analog signal.

We have read about the pros and con, and defined the different signal types present in a digital control system. Conclusively, I want you to point to the books in the references below, these are the best literature references in this field. I also use them as a reference for these blogs, and will try to point or refer to a chapter or section from the book when addressing a certain topic. In the next blog we will focus on the different system components of a digital control system.


[1] Levine, William S., ed. “The Control Handbook: Control System Fundamentals”. CRC press, 2010.
[2] Åström, Karl J., and Björn Wittenmark. “Computer-controlled systems: theory and design”. Courier Corporation, 2013.
[3] Franklin, Gene F., et al. “Feedback control of dynamic systems”. Vol. 3. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1994.
[4] Wittenmark, Björn, Karl Johan Åström, and Karl-Erik Årzén. “Computer control: An overview”. IFAC Professional Brief, 2002.
[5] Ogata, K. “Discrete-Time Control Systems”. Pearson Education, 1995.

Maintaining an overview of your financial expenses

At some point one you will want to keep track of your expenses to gain insight where you can save money. There are many websites and programs which offer insight into your expenses, for instance, YouNeedABudget, MoneyDashboard, GNUCash. However, for following three main reasons I decided to simply create my own expenses spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel.

  1. The programs often have a learning curve and you have to adapt to their way of working.
  2. I wanted to use a tool of which I can be almost certain that it will still exist in +20 years.
  3. Sometimes you will find yourself in the spot in which you want to have insight into some details. But, unfortunately these are not (directly) provided by the tool. Therefor I wanted to be able to program myself to gain insight. However, this still should be fairly simple to do.

Now let me tell you what my spreadsheet provides. Since I wanted to categorize my expenses I created one sheet with categories and subcategories. To keep track of all the transactions, a table was created in which all main transactions details are logged. The table has the following fields: bank account, type of account (saving or payment?), date, type  (income or expense?), amount, currency, kind (variabel or fixed?), category, subcategory and remarks. While there is a currency field, it is not used yet. The with main reason for this is because fortunately I do not have to deal with money different currency types. To gain insight into the data from the table, three pivot tables and charts were created. Using the pivot tables and charts, which are semi-interactive, one is able to, for instance, zoom-in in a particular category or time stamp. To finalize, I created a kind of dashboard in which all income and expenses data is summarized per month. First details are displayed about my balance of my payment and savings account. Followed by all the expenses details, sorted by category. Using the outline group functionality one is able to open the category and list the subcategories for that month. For each category and subcategory I show its portion (in percentage) with respect to all expenses, the median per month and the average per month. Using conditional formatting this data is also visualized to give a overview, such that you are able to identify the ratios and relationships quickly. sparklines are being used to show the trend of the expenses through out the year. Concluding, the dashboard sheet makes sure that all the data and details are visible at one glance but still manages to dive into details.

You can download an example with dummy data of the Excel sheet over here: Financien (example)


Codenames is played between two teams, red and blue on a set of twenty-five codenames. Each team consists of a single spymaster who knows the secret identity behind each codename, with the remaining players as field operatives who will contact the codenames. On each turn of the game, the spymaster provides a clue to their field operatives. The field operatives will then attempt to contact at least one of their aligned agents based on the codenames clued. The first team to activate all of their agents wins the game!

Codenames is an interesting game since it can be adapted to a variaty of themes. For instance, it can be themed to Harry Potter. As such it is also a very good game to be played with children. Therefor, I created an excel file (Update 2017-04-30: I updated and added two additional word lists to the file; i) the official word list and ii) an extensive noun word list. Download here) from the original game which includes all the necessary items for the basic game:

  • Codenames (two categories, general and Harry Potter)
  • Map cards
  • Identity cards

You can print these on sheets of paper and cut them out. Now follows a set of detailed instructions for playing the game.

Identity cards
Identity cards
Selection of the codenames.
Map cards.
Selection of the map cards.


Players are divided into two teams, Red and Blue. Each team consists of one spymaster, with the remaining players as field operatives. All players observe a set of twenty-five words, representing codenames for agents aligned with each team. While field operatives do not observe the identities of each of the codenames, the spymasters each get to see the identity of all codenames on the map card.

There are four different agent identities: red agent, blue agent, bystander, and assassin. One of the teams will have nine of their-colored agents in the set of codenames, while the other team will have eight agents. The team with nine agents will take the starting turn in the game. Among the eight codenames not aligned with either team, there are seven Bystanders and one Assassin. Effects for contacting these agents are described in the following section.

Game flow

On a team’s turn, their spymaster must start by providing their field operatives with a clue for the identities for their own agents. A clue consists of a single word and a number. The word should be related to the codenames that are aligned with the acting spymaster’s team, while the number represents how many codenames are related to the clue word. Further guidelines, including two special number rules, follow in the section below.

Once a clue has been given, the field operatives are free to discuss which codename(s) should be contacted. When the field operatives have decided on a guess, they may register their guess by touching the codename. The host or spymaster will reveal the identity of the codename by putting an identity card (Red Agent, Blue Agent, Bystander or Assasin) on top of it.

If the revealed agent is of the same team as the operatives, then they may continue making guesses. A maximum number of guesses may be made equal to the number given in the spymaster’s clue, plus one. Alternatively, the field operatives may pass to end their turn, so long as they have made at least one guess already on their turn. If the revealed agent is not of the same team, then the turn ends. In the special case that the assassin was revealed, then the team that performed the reveal immediately loses the game.

Spymaster Clue Guidelines

Spymaster clues consist of a single word and a number, with the following guidelines:

  • Words must be related to the meaning of the codenames being clued.
  • The number following the word cannot be used as a clue itself.
  • Clues may not include codenames or related forms of codenames. For compound codenames, this includes the constituent words that comprise the compound word. Once a codename has been guessed, it can be used in clues.

Overall, be reasonable about rules; spymasters may consult with their opposing spymaster and the host for the validity of a clue. If an invalid clue is provided, then the turn immediately ends and the opposing spymaster may declare an agent of their own color before making their own clue.

Spymasters have two special options for numbers associated with their clue words. First, spymasters may declare zero (0) as their clue, suggesting that none of the codenames are related to their declared word. In the case that zero is declared, the field operatives do not have a limit to the number of guesses that they may make before passing. The second special option is to declare “unlimited” as their clue, suggesting at least one codename is related to the declared word. As with zero, the number of guesses that may be made by field operatives before passing is unlimited.

(Modified) PERT distribution

The United States navy developed in the 1950’s a program evaluation research task (PERT). It was designed to analyze the duration of a project and the tasks within the project. Each task in the project is given the following properties:

  • Name of the task
  • Predecessor, the list of tasks that have to be completed before the task can start.
  • The amount of time it will take for a task to be finished.

The duration of a task is often not fixed. It can vary between a minimum and maximum. The PERT distribution was created to give a good estimate of what the probability is of the duration of a task. It uses the same three parameters as the Triangular distribution, namely, the minimum (\text{min}), the most likely (\text{mode}) and the maximum (\text{max}). The probability density function (PDF) is given by

    \begin{equation*} f(x) = \frac{1}{B(\alpha_1,\alpha_2)}\frac{(x - \text{min})^{\alpha_1 - 1} (\text{max} - x)^{\alpha_2 - 1}}{(\text{max} - \text{min})^{\alpha_1 + \alpha_2 - 1}} \end{equation*}


    \begin{equation*} \alpha_1 = 6 \left( \frac{\mu - \text{min}}{\text{max} - \text{min}} \right), \quad \alpha_2 = 6 \left( \frac{\text{max} - \mu}{\text{max} - \text{min}} \right), \quad \end{equation*}


    \begin{equation*} \mu = \frac{\text{min} + 4\text{mode} + \text{max}}{6} \end{equation*}

being the mean.

An additional shape parameter \gamma might be added, in which case we are dealing with the modified PERT (MPERT) distribution. The parameter influences the peakness of the distribution. The only difference with PERT is the definition of \alpha_1 and \alpha_2. These are namely defined as:

    \begin{equation*} \alpha_1 = 1 + \gamma \left( \frac{\mu - \text{min}}{\text{max} - \text{min}} \right), \quad \alpha_2 = 1 + \gamma \left( \frac{\text{max} - \mu}{\text{max} - \text{min}} \right), \quad \end{equation*}

I created some Matlab code which includes functions for the PDF, the (inverse) cumulative distribution function (CDF). The inverse CDF is important for when you want to generate random numbers. The code can be download from here.

Finally, below is an interactive example of the PDF of PERT (blue) and MPERT (red) distribution.

Published articles

During and after my Master thesis I authored and co-authored three articles. Two for a scientific journals (IEEE) and one for a Dutch professional magazine (Mechatronica & Machinebouw). While it took me a lot of time writing these articles and I do think that the current publish or perfish system is completly wrong – can write a whole blog about this or maybe read this article – I am glad I took up the challenge to write them next to my thesis.

Writing a scientific article is completely different compared to writing your thesis. For your thesis you have numerous pages to explain your story for a scientific article you only have a few. As a result, you will have to be very precise in your writing and choose the words carefully. It has to be very clear, precise and short. This can be very challenging when your story touches a lot of subjects from different fields. Angel Borja wrote a three articles on writing your article and I would like to share these with you:

  1. Six things to do before writing your manuscript
  2. 11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously
  3. Writing the first draft of your science paper — some dos and don’ts

In addition, I found the UW-Madisons Writer’s Handbook and especially the page about Transitional Words and Phrases useful.

Finally, without further ado, the three articles I have written.

Frequency-domain analysis of real-time and networked control systems with stochastic delays and data drops

Abstract—We present a novel frequency-domain analysis framework for a closed-loop model capturing a wide range of real-time and networked control systems with stochastic delays and packet drops. Our results allow for inferring the mean and variance of the output response to deterministic inputs, based on a new frequency response plot. We illustrate the usefulness of our results in the context of real-time control systems with input-to-output delays resulting from the use of a shared processor.

Keywords—Frequency-domain analysis, networked control systems, real-time systems, stochastic systems, data losses, delays


The impact of deadline misses on the control performance of high-end motion control systems

Abstract—In high-end motion control systems the real-time computational platform must execute tasks from multiple control loops operating at high sampling rates. In recent years traditional special-purpose platforms have been replaced by general purpose multi-processor platforms, which introduce significant fluctuations in execution times. While considering worst-case execution times would severely reduce the sampling rates, accepting deadline misses and assuring that the control system still meets the desired specifications is challenging. In this paper, we provide a framework to model and assert the impact of deadline misses in a real-time control loop. We consider stochastic models for deadline misses and characterize the mean and the variance of closed-loop output variables based on a time-domain analysis. We illustrate the usefulness of our framework in the control of a benchmark motion control experimental setup and in the control of a wafer stage in a lithographic machine.

Keywords—Deadline misses, data losses, packet drops, performance analysis, stochastic analysis, industrial case study, hybrid systems, cyber-physical systems, real-time systems


Smarter balancing between performance and costs in control systems

Abstract—In order to ensure the performance of control systems, the digital platforms on which they are executed are often over-dimensioned, which are unnecessary costly. State-of-the-art model based techniques make it possible to create cheaper control systems, without performance degradation.

Keywords—Deadline misses, data losses, packet drops, performance analysis, stochastic analysis, industrial case study, hybrid systems, cyber-physical systems, real-time systems


Fantasy book frame quote

A few weeks ago I saw the following tweet by Bo Marit. I really liked how the quote and the symbol reference stand out in front of the text in the frame. Since, I liked them so much I decided to be a copy-cat. However, I added also another frame with a reference to Game of Thrones.

The font that she uses for the quote is called Darleston. It is a really elegant calligraphic font created by Youssef Habchi. For the book page text I used Garamond, a standard font on most computers. I chose this font because it has an oldish style to it. While this could easily be created in Photoshop or any other graphics editor, I simply recreated it with Microsoft Word, which is maybe even easier! I simply created a two column layout, added two textboxes for the quotes and the symbol image. You can download the word file here (note: you will need the fonts Darleston and Garamond) or a pdf file here. As an frame I would recommend a simple wooden frame as Bo Marit uses, I think it gives adds elegance and makes it look more humble. Furthermore, I would not use regular A4 paper to print this on. I searched for the same type of paper you often see used in books. Most likely you will find this type of paper in your local hobby store.

Finally, my result:

Three frames with a book page and quote in front as reference.

I plan the hang the Harry Potter frame near to a light switch, the Lord of the Rings frame near to the clock and the Game of Thrones frame near to the thermostat.


From 28th of May to the 1st of June GEMOLD14 takes place. GEMOLD14 is the GEWIS version of the popular Dutch television program wie is de mol?, literally translated who is the mole?. The program is about 10 candidates who have to complete several assignments with which they can earn money. However, one of the candidates is the mole, it is his solely purpose to make sure that assignments fail and the team of candidates earn as less money as possible.  At the end of each episode there is an execution, the candidates have to answer a number of questions about the identity of the mole. The candidate who answers the least amount of questions correct has to leave. Candidates can earn jokers, which turns a falsely answered question into a correct one, or free-cards with which they do not have to do the answer the questions at all and guarantees continuation to the next episode. At the end of the program there are only three candidates left, the mole and two candidates. The winner is the candidate, who is not the mole of course, who answers the most correct questions about the identity of the mole.

On the 23rd of February I got an e-mail from the GEMOLD14 committee with the message I was selected to participate as a candidate. Together with the e-mail I received a questionnaire which I immediately filled in. You can download it here, however, it is in Dutch. I also had to write a small introduction about myself for the website, which you can view here, also in Dutch. After that it was just waiting for the 28th of May.

On the 28th of May all 14 candidates gathered at GEWIS in the Metaforum at the university. Before I went to GEWIS I made a visit to the bathroom where I wrote mole on mirror with soap just as a tease for the other male candidates who might had to go to the bathroom after I went. Later we were delegated to come to balcony of the Metaforum. After a group picture with all the candidates GEMOLD14 was finally about to start. Tim the host of GEMOLD14 showed up and welcomed us. He explained some organizational matters and how jokers and free cards looked like. We handed in our mobile phones, wallets and everything else that we were not allowed to have in our possession during the weekend. Afterwards, he told us to prepare ourselves for execution! With only the questions from questionnaire  someone was already going to leave the group. Everyone was in shock, while I only had an eye for the joker and free card which Tim showed us as an example and left on a small table. With an easy pace I walked up to the table and grabbed them while everyone was gasping and watching me. Unfortunately however, one of the other organizers came up to me and told me to give them back. As polite as I am, I gave them back. Very stupid afterwards since they really lay in the open and the organizers were only to blame themselves to leave them so in the open. In the meantime the monitor was placed. Ruben, the host who did the executions, called the first name: Rik — who I think is the mole by the way — got a green screen. He was followed by Celine, Mark, Jos, Arno and Levi who all got a green screen. Then it was Wout’s turn, he was one of the finalist of GEMOLD13. Unfortunately for him he got a red screen and we were left with 13 candidates.

Wout was executed and the remaining candidates and myself gathered between the Metaforum and the Main building. Tim showed up. He asked for two volunteers who were lazy, Jos and Annebel presented themselves after which they were escorted away from the rest. Tim asked for someone who still had to recover from the shock, Mike presented himself and he was also escorted. At the end Tim needed two more volunteers who would enjoy a little walk, Ingmar and Leroy presented themselves. The rest had to fetch our bicycles and were escorted by two people from the organisation, Merel and Serge. For clearance here a list of the people:

  • Two volunteers who were lazy: Jos and Annebel.
  • One volunteer who still had to recover from the shock: Mike
  • Two volunteers who enjoyed a walk: Ingmar and Leroy
  • The rest who were gonna travel by bicycle: Wouter (me), Jorik, Celine, Wim, Levi, Rik (mole!), Patricia and Arno.

We drove to the Opwettense Watermill. Tim was waiting for us, after we parked our bicycles Tim explained us the assignment. Two people would arrive at the Watermill in approximate 10 minutes. From there on we had to guide them within one hour to the camp location were we would spend the night. We were to act as a traffic signpost and were not allowed to communicate by any other means than that. We were given three maps in which not all roads were clearly visible. On the left side the street directions were given in plain text. After the instructions of Tim we gathered in a circle around one of the maps, discussing which positions were best to post someone as a signpost. In this discussing Levi took the lead. Celine also got hold of one of the maps, I asked her if I could have a look at it. She gave me the map, but not before saying that she wanted it back afterwards, of course I never gave it back. At the first point were we had to leave someone behind I told the group we had to leave Celine as a signpost, I took the lead in this discussion since I did not suspect her. Celine was left at the first street crossing and the rest bicycled further. During the road there was some discussion whether or not someone had to be left at a street junction however of course our logic kicked in and we decided to post no-one as long as the directions was straight ahead. Jorik was left next at a roundabout. Then Patricia was left at a crossing. After that there was some discussion if we took the correct turn. I quickly ended that discussion because from reading the map and street names I knew we were correct. It was very funny and suspicious to see that no one seemed to be bothered to actually look at the street names and the ones on the map. The discussions were more like — when you look at the scale of the map and the distance from this crossing to this crossing, this had to be the correct crossing. At the next crossing I told the group which was left, that I want to act as a signpost and to be left behind. Levi did not like that and wanted to leave someone else behind — I guess he did not trust me.  Rik (mole!) however told Levi however that we could keep discussing but that it was useless and he should accept the situation as it was. I was left behind as a signpost and the rest continued. However at the end of the road they stopped and were discussing. Later I learned that there was confusion about the map since there should have been a straight clear road ahead but there was not. However during their discussion Ingmar and Leroy arrived at my location, quickly I acted as a signpost and pointed them to the correct direction. Ingmar and Leroy were gaining upon the rest of the bicyclists, since they were still discussing. Suddenly they saw them and drove of, however, leaving Wim behind as a signpost. From this point on I could only guess and learn from others what happened further on. Suddenly however Mike arrived, I was kind of surprised and without thinking I pointed him in the correct direction, very foolish of me so it appeared afterwards.

While I was waiting to be picked up by one of the organizers I started to write in my mole booklet. After a while the group reappeared and we drove back to the starting point to pick up everyone after which we drove straight to the camp location. At the camp location we had to step off from our bicycles and one by one we had to go to the gates from the encampment. Jorik went first, he however came back and told us that he did not get in. He told us that we were getting a yes or no question about if we wanted to get into the encampment for -500 mole money. In the meantime Arno did went to the gate and got in. At first I thought he told yes. Then Wim and Celine got in as well. I got to the gate and got the question which Jorik told me I would get, I clearly said no and got in. From what I learned afterwards Jorik told not clearly no but said “euh no. Inside the main building of the encampment I learned that while there was some confusion on the road, after I was left behind, we succeeded with the assignment. When every candidate was inside Tim greeted us. He told us that Ingmar and Leroy were inside the encampment in time with which we earned 500 mole money. However, Mike also made it also into the encampment with which he earned a free-card. This did however cost -1000 mole money. So actually we did fail with the assignment, since we got -500 mole money in the end. The mole had succeeded and we went to sleep.

The next morning all candidates gathered in a small room. Tim joined and explained the lie and cheat assignment. The moles of the three previous editions of GEMOLD would join us they would act as a jury. Tim would then ask each candidate two questions, one had to be answered truthfully the other with a lie. The jury would then try to guess which answer was a lie. Each candidate could earn mole money when the jury did not manage to find out which answer was a lie. When a previously candidate managed to fool the jury the next candidate could choose to call. The mole money earned by the previous candidate would then be safe. If he continued and the jury would guess correctly which answer was a lie then the previously earned mole money would be gone. The amount of mole money earned would raise by:

  • 10 mole
  • 30 mole
  • 100 mole
  • 200 mole
  • 500 mole
  • 1000 mole
  • 1500 mole

First Ingmar and Patrice who both did not manage to fool the jury. Then other candidates told me I had to go, I resisted a bit but gave in to the pressure. Tim asked me two questions, if I had a part-time job and what my favorite book was. Since I did not quiet understand the game at that moment, I was wondering if the question which were asked stood in the questionnaire, I decided to answer the first question falsely and the second truthfully. The jury then guessed wrong. The next candidate did not decide to call and unfortunately he did not fool the jury. The 10 mole earned by me were gone. After my question, I gave the assignment some more thought and I believed that we could have lied always regardless what type of question we were asked because the questions did not actually come from the questionnaire. Hence it could never be checked if the candidate was actually lying towards the jury. After I got executed, I looked it up and indeed both questions which I was asked were not in the questionnaire. As such I think I was correct during the game and we could all just have lied towards the jury. Unfortunately everyone was to truthfully towards the jury and we only managed to obtain 100 mole. We could have earned a lot of mole money very easily. This time the mole was not clever, we were dumb.

After the next assignment, I unfortunately got executed. I wrote this blog almost immediately after I was executed. However, I did not describe the events during the last assignment, I did plan to finish it at a later stage. However, as you can see that never happened. Because the episodes are being aired now, I decided not describe these events anymore from my point of view.

Mole booklet